Definition of Investment by Different Authors

The term “investment” has been defined in different ways by different authors. The term is typically used to refer to capital expenditure, production equipment, or activity. Other definitions include the investment of money and time in an activity, as well as the investment of future results. Sunariyah’s definition of investment, for example, says that investment is an investment of one or more assets for the long term.

See also:

Induced investment

There are two main types of investment: autonomous and induced. Autonomous investment is made with a social or welfare motive, whereas induced investment is made for profit. Autonomous investment is not affected by the level of income, while induced investment is influenced by various endogenous variables, including wage levels, consumer demand, existing stocks of capital, and stock exchange activity. It also depends on factors such as government policies, research, and innovation.

Induced investment can be either a direct or indirect investment. Real investment increases employment and production, and it is directly related to economic growth. Planned investment is made with a concrete plan to achieve a specific goal. On the other hand, unplanned investment is a random act of investing that is made without a specific purpose or plan.

Financial investment involves buying new financial assets. This is distinct from the transfer of existing assets. While financial investment can have positive effects on the level of employment and production, it is not considered an induced investment. Real investment, on the other hand, involves making physical investments. It is characterized by a positive economic impact.

Autonomous investment

Autonomous investment is a concept that is used to describe the process of generating returns without a human being directing the investments. The process of investing in a portfolio is a complex and dynamic process that requires self-organization in order to produce the required results. In order to do this, different authors propose two types of self-organization. One type is already implemented in previous work, while the other type is a new contribution.

Autonomous investments may take many forms, including investments in government infrastructure, inventory replenishment, and other forms of public utility. In many cases, these investments are not motivated by profit but by the need to maintain societal welfare. These projects may include projects such as the installation of new street lights in several parts of a town. These projects help make the streets safer and can lead to more people visiting stores in the area.

Autonomous investments differ from traditional investments because they are not based on national income or output. They may be fueled by government policies or the desire to invest in emerging technologies. While autonomous investments may not have a profit motive, they are still made by various types of investors. For example, a private investor may invest in a public utility for social benefits, while another investor may seek to make a profit by using a strategy to maximize returns.

The main difference between the three types of models lies in the capacity utilization rate in the long run. The two authors focus on this issue separately. The authors use empirical evidence from the Euro Area to test their respective predictions.

Definition of Investment by Different Authors

Capital preservation

Capital preservation refers to a conservative investment strategy that seeks to protect the assets in an investor’s portfolio. In most cases, capital preservation involves investing in stable, short-term investments. Whether to use this strategy depends on your timeline and financial goals. Young investors usually prefer to invest for growth, but older investors may want to consider using a preservation strategy.

One of the biggest disadvantages of capital preservation is the effects of inflation. Inflation erodes the real value of investments over time. A capital preservation strategy seeks to keep investments at or near par with inflation. While it may be more conservative than investing aggressively, it is still a sound way to manage your money and ensure its long-term value.

There are many different types of investments that can help with capital preservation. These include short-term municipal bonds, money market funds, and savings accounts. Most of these options are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Other low-risk investments include CDs and short-term Treasury bills. These types of investments are usually low-risk and offer the potential of a substantial yield.

Investment fees are another major point of litigation, but they have improved over the years. While capital preservation products are structured differently, most fall into one of three categories: insurance separate accounts, synthetic wrap accounts, and money market funds. Insurance companies also offer general account products, which generally fall into declared rates. These products do not charge a fixed fee on assets and are frequently used in 403b/457 plans.

Investments in capital preservation products can be difficult to benchmark due to the many different product structures and the lack of industry benchmarks. Before 2008, money market funds were the most popular option for capital preservation due to their simple structure and consistent returns. However, during the 2008 financial crisis, money market funds began to suffer liquidity problems. As a result, many funds had to inject cash in order to maintain a $1 NAV. In October 2016, money market reform is scheduled to take effect.


The duration of investment is a key measurement of the risk in fixed-income securities, including bonds. It reflects the sensitivity of the bond price to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration, the greater the risk involved. For example, if a bond’s duration is three years, the risk associated with higher rates is greater. In contrast, a bond with a shorter duration is not as risky.

Bond duration is a useful analytical tool, but it does not provide a complete picture of the risk associated with a given bond. It does not tell anything about the credit quality of the bond, which is important when investing in bonds with lower ratings. Lower-rated bonds tend to react more to concerns from investors about a company’s stability.

The duration of bonds refers to the weighted average time to maturity of the bonds in an investment portfolio. Bonds with longer durations take longer to pay back their debt, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. Because of this, their prices will typically fall or rise in response to changes in interest rates.

Economic development

While the debate over economic development continues to rage, there is limited consensus on the measures of development. Most development economists consider a move toward more equitable income distribution to be a key indicator. An improved income distribution generally signals that the most vulnerable members of a society are receiving better opportunities than their counterparts. Asian countries tend to have the most favorable income distributions.

Most developing countries investment resources come from abroad, either through foreign direct investment or debt. This high dependence limits their independence and puts them at risk of coercive policies if they mismanage their resources. Furthermore, many developing countries have large current-account deficits, making them especially vulnerable to internal economic downturns. To overcome this vulnerability, developing countries need to accumulate domestic savings to reduce their dependence on foreign capital flows. By developing domestic savings, these countries can create a sustainable long-term financing base for investments.

Growth is a process of transformation and is uneven in the early stages. Various economic historians have tried to develop a theory of stages of economic development. Early writers compared economic development to stages of human life, such as maturity, growth, and decadence. Other economists, like Colin Clark of Australia, have highlighted the dominance of different sectors in the economy.

Recent historical experiences in Africa provide valuable lessons for African leaders. Using successful examples, African leaders can build integrated economic development strategies. For example, they can learn from population policies and family planning programs.

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