In the 1960s, a number of important changes occurred in education. Students were required to take home-education classes, desegregation was implemented, and biliteracy was made mandatory. Additionally, there was a strong push for speed-reading and bilingual education. These changes were a result of the movement culture of the 1960s.
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Home education became compulsory
Before home education became compulsory in the 1960s, children were primarily educated through apprenticeships and communal activities. As the trend toward compulsory education gained political and economic momentum, the popularity of home education began to decline. Government officials began pursuing parents who opted for home education with a wave of prosecutions. Against this backdrop, alternative educators began to assert their ideas.
This movement’s most important characteristic was the gradual loss of parental control. When the government and the education system became the main determinants of child development, parents began to lose influence and power. Government agents assumed greater responsibilities in society, making home education virtually impossible. But as the neoliberal logic began to rise, home education became an increasingly popular alternative.
Despite its turbulent history, home education has been successful in many countries and states. It lost its counter-cultural stigma by the mid-1990s, and homeschooling became a popular option for many families. It was facilitated by a wide range of advocacy groups and support groups. During this period, homeschooling also benefited from an expansion in small businesses supplying curriculum materials to the growing homeschooling market.
The homeschooling community is made up of largely middle-class, white, and well-educated families. Most home-schooling families are headed by a mother or have a single male breadwinner. It is a popular choice among conservative and religious women. It is also an economical alternative to sending your child to a conventional school.
Homeschooling was originally a collective choice and has since evolved into a highly developed social movement. It began in the 1960s as a left-liberal alternative school movement that sought to give students more choice and flexibility over their education. In the 1970s, home-schoolers began to develop tactics to fight government attempts to prevent them from educating their children at home.
Holt Moore, an early homeschooling advocate, created a curriculum for home-schooled children that was based on a three-part formula: academic study, manual labor, and community service. His homeschooling philosophy found an audience among Christian parents and he became a popular thinker for the Christian homeschooling movement.
Desegregation of public schools
Since the desegregation of public schools in the 1960s, the word desegregation has taken on many different meanings. While desegregation has led to better educational opportunities for minority children, some of its policies have done more harm than good. For example, eliminating neighborhood schools and busing students to segregated schools have decreased parental involvement in their children’s education. These policies also threaten continuity and stability in schools.
Desegregation of public schools began as a campaign against racism and discrimination. In the 1960s, some African American parents in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were working to end segregation in their city’s public schools. They began to organize protest marches and boycotts against segregation. In 1965, they filed a lawsuit against Milwaukee Public Schools on behalf of thirty-two African-American students and nine white students.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave the federal government the power to enforce desegregation in public schools. The Justice Department could sue schools that refused to integrate, and the government could withhold federal funding from them. By the end of the decade, integration had reached the southern U.S., and the percentage of black children in southern schools fell from 78 percent to 25 percent.
Although the CORE/UCRC protests led to the desegregation of Jefferson High, the fight wasn’t over. For weeks, students in segregated schools roiled the school system. Ultimately, the BoE called in police to quell the violence. Afterward, cops in riot gear attacked students at Roosevelt High. As a result, the walkouts were suppressed.
The trend toward desegregation in schools started to reverse in the 1990s, with three decisions by the Supreme Court limiting its reach. In addition, other branches of government rolled back desegregation efforts. Despite these setbacks, however, a recent decision by the Supreme Court will likely speed up the process further. The ruling is a result of two lawsuits, one in Louisville and one in Seattle, where white parents sued after discrimination in admission.
Desegregation in schools in the 1960s began in Virginia in February 1959, after a three-year battle in federal courts. During this period, only about 3% of the city’s 104,000 Black students attended schools that had been segregated until that date. In some states, such as Alabama and Mississippi, less than 1% of African American students were in segregated schools.
Bilingual education became a necessity
In the 1960s, the United States Congress passed the Bilingual Education Act, providing federal funds for bilingual education programs. This act was meant to help immigrants and children of limited English proficiency receive an equal education in the United States. The legislation also helped schools obtain educational resources and train staff to teach bilingual students.
It is important to note that bilingual classrooms have their drawbacks. Children are often required to remain in bilingual classes, which wastes valuable time. To avoid wasting a child’s time, bilingual classrooms can be reconfigured to only contain English sections. This is more efficient and allows for more students to benefit from the program.
As bilingual education spread throughout the country, so did the number of questions raised about the effectiveness of bilingual education. The American Institute of Research, funded by the Department of Education, conducted the first large-scale study. This study found that most bilingual children were capable of functioning in regular classes. It also found that the concept of bilingual education did not reduce the number of schoolchildren with limited English proficiency.
Bilingual education has long been the subject of considerable press coverage, but much of it has been superficial and uncritical. In recent years, however, there has been a significant increase in serious writing on the topic. This writing, particularly from the New York Times and Wall Street Journal, has focused on a new set of problems.
After the Civil War, there was a backlash against immigrants who could not speak English. Moreover, English-only laws were passed in many states, resulting in the decline of bilingual education. As a result, bilingual programs and legislation were nearly stopped. However, a majority of the United States was influenced by a more pluralist perspective.
The federal government also mandated bilingual education. The goal of bilingual education is to provide equal educational opportunities for all children regardless of their language. Bilingual programs must offer instruction in both English and the native language of limited English-speaking children. Moreover, the law provides funding to school districts for professional development.
Speed-reading became popular
Speed-reading is a skill that involves reading a large amount of text quickly while maintaining comprehension levels. Several famous people have been recognized for their speed reading abilities, including President John F. Kennedy, Evelyn Wood, Maria Teresa Calderon, and Howard Stephen Berg. These individuals learned to read faster through practice and dedication.
However, the effectiveness of speed-reading methods has been questioned. One study showed that participants of speed-reading courses were reading alternate lines from two unrelated source documents. Moreover, they claimed to understand the text they were reading, yet their reading speed was still only about 1,700 words per minute. The study also found that the graduates did not pay attention to details or the local coherence of ideas.
The matriarch of speed-reading, Evelyn Wood, was a prominent proponent of this method. The technique, known as “Reading Dynamics,” was designed to help people read thousands of words per minute. Wood launched her first institute in Washington, DC, in 1958. Wood was soon praised for her work, but was ambushed by George Spache, the director of the University of Florida reading clinic.
The concept of speed-reading dates back to the 1950s, when Evelyn Wood introduced the Evelyn Wood Reading Dynamics training program. She claimed that her method could help troubled teenagers learn to read faster. Evelyn Wood’s program taught people to read more efficiently by reducing back-and-forth eye movements and taking in more information with each glance.
Speed-reading exercises began to gain popularity in the 1960s and are used for a variety of purposes, including education. The primary purpose of reading is to gain knowledge and understanding of the world. It’s important to understand what you’re reading and then act on the information you’ve learned. Although speed reading exercises can increase the speed at which you can read, they can’t guarantee that you’ll understand what you’re reading.
Despite its popularity, academic studies of speed reading have not proven its benefits of speed reading. However, some studies have shown that a person can read as fast as ten thousand words per minute. These high-speed reading techniques are difficult to replicate in a controlled study.