Many countries have different forms of education, but the Philippines, Japan, and Indonesia all have an education system that is informal and unstructured. Let’s look at some of these examples. We’ll also look at how informal and unstructured decentralized education has affected their societies.
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- Without Education There is no Future: Importance of Education in Man’s Life
Ghana’s education system is informal and unstructured decentralized
Ghana’s education system is informal and decentralized. Its decentralization and informality make it difficult for rural schools to attract qualified teachers. As a result, rural schools often rely on volunteers to teach. They also rarely receive the necessary funding to improve the quality of their facilities. This results in schools that lack buildings and are unsafe for children. In addition, bad weather can prevent classes from taking place.
The decentralized governance of the education system began after the 2008 Education Act introduced a four-tier structure for the sector. This structure runs from regions to districts and finally schools. A central government-appointed DCE heads the decentralized education oversight committee. The committee also includes representatives from school management committees, parent-teacher associations, traditional authorities, and teacher unions.
Despite efforts to reform Ghana’s education sector, the quality of basic education remains low. The system is ineffective at creating incentives to hold local officials accountable. To improve quality, Ghana will need to develop reform-minded coalitions and ensure a stable political settlement at the district level.
In Ghana, the political settlement at the district level affects the implementation of education quality reforms. The extent of intra and inter-party competition in the district affects the ability of politicians to form district-level coalitions. The incentives of politicians also affect the alignment of their interests with school-level actors.
Students attending Ghana’s universities attend the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi. The grading system varies across institutions, but almost all tertiary institutions use the Grade Point Average (GPA) system. However, each school has its own way of calculating the GPA. Therefore, a mark of 80 in one institution may be an A+ in another.
Although the number of universities in Ghana has increased significantly in recent years, the number of students studying in higher education remains small, despite the country’s rapid development. In 2014, there were ten public universities and eight technical universities in the country. In addition, there are seven university-level vocational training institutes in Ghana.
As a result, the political context has encouraged the politicization of education provision in Ghana. This enables political actors to ensure adequate teachers in schools. However, the lack of political control also led to teacher union executives in some districts promoting teachers who were absent from their work.
Philippines’ education system is informal and unstructured decentralized
Education in the Philippines has a rich history. Before Spanish colonization, education in the Philippines was informal and unstructured, decentralized, and hands-on. Children were taught by tribal tutors or parents and received less academic training than today’s students. Education in the Philippines was a matter of tradition, but has undergone numerous changes since its founding in 1946.
In the 21st century, the Philippines’ education system underwent a revolution. The Department of Education implemented a new K-12 education system, with new curriculum for grades K-12. The program is being phased in, with implementation in schools nationwide. The changes to education in the Philippines were made to better prepare the country for the future.
Prior to the establishment of the K-12 Program, education in the Philippines was one year of preschool followed by six years of elementary school. Primary school students were taught the local dialect and a mix of Filipino and English. The standardized Tagalog/Filipino language was also introduced to the youngest students. There are two cycles in the primary school system: a first cycle and a second cycle.
In the past, the primary purpose of education was survival. Male children were taught to work on farms and other forms of economic activity, while girls learned household chores. These skills prepared children to be good husbands and wives. Today, education in the Philippines is highly effective, but young would-be graduates can still benefit from expanding their knowledge. Online courses can supplement their formal education and boost employability once they are ready to work.
The Philippines’ education system has a history of being both informal and unstructured. Since the founding of the Educational Decree in 1863, the number of schools and students has steadily increased. In 1866, there were eighty-one public schools for boys and eighty-three for girls. The government also mandated the establishment of a normal school for male teachers run by the Jesuits. By 1893, the number of schools had doubled, and enrollment in schools exceeded 200,000.
The Philippines has a high proportion of out-of-school children. The dropout rate in primary school is 6.38%, while the dropout rate in secondary school is 7.82%. The main cause of dropouts is poverty.
Japan’s education system is informal and unstructured decentralized
The Japanese education system is unique in several ways. It is highly individualized, focusing on the needs of the individual student. In addition to traditional school settings, the system includes private education programs that respond to individual needs. In addition, there is a strong parent and community commitment to education. Furthermore, the government and business sectors support education with policies and employment practices.
The postwar recovery and accelerating economic growth put increasing demands on Japan’s education system. This period also saw the beginning of a great debate on educational reform. Many aspects of the current reform movement in Japan can be traced back to this time period. In addition, the government wants to expand compulsory education to kindergarten.
The Ministry of Education determines the national education system and makes decisions regarding the creation of new educational institutions. It also sets budgets for educational institutions and provides subsidies for private education centers. It also determines how many primary and secondary schools should be open to satisfy demand. The Ministry of Education is also responsible for the administration of the universities.
The educational system in Japan is an important instrument of national policy and cultural continuity. It helps to instill attitudes, knowledge, and skills that are useful for the future. It also reinforces lessons learned in the family and society. The Japanese society is largely homogeneous but has some notable differences. This is reflected in the fineness of distinctions in social status and individuality.
Japanese education has always had goals. These include moral education and character development. As such, it is seen as an obligation to educate a child. As a result, schools must impart fundamental Japanese values. For example, in elementary school, classes are organized into small groups. These small groups are the basic units of discipline, instruction, and other activities.
Natural disasters have also been a part of Japanese culture, but Japan has done a good job of coping with natural disasters by developing measures to mitigate these risks. The country has made efforts to incorporate lessons learned from disasters into its culture, and it has worked with UNDRR to implement development aid policies.
Indonesia’s education system is informal and unstructured decentralized
Indonesia’s education system has undergone many dramatic changes since the country’s transition to democracy in 1999 and 2003. Under the New Order, the country spent huge sums on new public schools and the recruitment of teachers. It also promoted the expansion of the higher education system by facilitating the establishment of private HEIs. In the post-New Order era, Indonesia’s move toward decentralization included education policy as well, so that the country’s 500 districts would be able to make educational decisions and adjust policy to the context of each district.
The Indonesian education system focuses on two goals: to develop character and to enhance knowledge and skills. These objectives are stated in the 1945 Constitution and the 2003 Law on the National Education System. These two goals have guided education policies in Indonesia for more than seven decades. The first goal is to develop students who are moral and of good character. The second goal is to develop a nation of knowledgeable, independent, and democratic citizens.
Indonesia’s education system is structured in streams. The first level is primary education. The second level is junior secondary education. This level is followed by senior secondary education. Higher education includes postgraduate, doctoral, and professional programs. State-run institutions, such as universities and polytechnics, dominate the education system in Indonesia.
Improvements in education quality in Indonesia must go beyond better resourcing, improved teacher training programs, and institutional autonomy. They should be accompanied by a fundamental shift in the relationships of government and society. The education system is decentralized, but the national government still holds a core position in it.
The learning outcomes of Indonesian students continue to be poor. According to the World Bank’s World Development Report, Indonesia ranked 379 out of 500 in the mathematics portion of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2014. Level 2 is considered “achieving a minimum proficiency level.” PISA scores are used as a metric in the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the efforts, learning has not improved during the period of 2000-2014.
Indonesian policymakers view education as an important tool to overcome societal problems. Indonesia has an education policy that focuses on character education, which is based on 18 character values. This policy aims to improve low learning outcomes by addressing societal issues. The PPK emphasizes morality, nationalism, and religion. Character education complements the traditional focus on learning.